Appendix G. Grammar of CSS 2

Contents

This appendix is non-normative.

The grammar below defines the syntax of CSS 2. It is in some sense, however, a superset of CSS 2 as this specification imposes additional semantic constraints not expressed in this grammar. A conforming UA must also adhere to the forward-compatible parsing rules, the selectors notation, the property and value notation, and the unit notation. However, not all syntactically correct CSS can take effect, since the document language may impose restrictions that are not in CSS, e.g., HTML imposes restrictions on the possible values of the "class" attribute.

G.1 Grammar

The grammar below is LALR(1) (but note that most UA's should not use it directly, since it does not express the parsing conventions, only the CSS 2 syntax). The format of the productions is optimized for human consumption and some shorthand notation beyond Yacc (see [YACC]) is used:

The productions are:

stylesheet
  : [ CHARSET_SYM STRING ';' ]?
    [S|CDO|CDC]* [ import [ CDO S* | CDC S* ]* ]*
    [ [ ruleset | media | page ] [ CDO S* | CDC S* ]* ]*
  ;
import
  : IMPORT_SYM S*
    [STRING|URI] S* media_list? ';' S*
  ;
media
  : MEDIA_SYM S* media_list '{' S* ruleset* '}' S*
  ;
media_list
  : medium [ COMMA S* medium]*
  ;
medium
  : IDENT S*
  ;
page
  : PAGE_SYM S* pseudo_page?
    '{' S* declaration? [ ';' S* declaration? ]* '}' S*
  ;
pseudo_page
  : ':' IDENT S*
  ;
operator
  : '/' S* | ',' S*
  ;
combinator
  : '+' S*
  | '>' S*
  ;
property
  : IDENT S*
  ;
ruleset
  : selector [ ',' S* selector ]*
    '{' S* declaration? [ ';' S* declaration? ]* '}' S*
  ;
selector
  : simple_selector [ combinator selector | S+ [ combinator? selector ]? ]?
  ;
simple_selector
  : element_name [ HASH | class | attrib | pseudo ]*
  | [ HASH | class | attrib | pseudo ]+
  ;
class
  : '.' IDENT
  ;
element_name
  : IDENT | '*'
  ;
attrib
  : '[' S* IDENT S* [ [ '=' | INCLUDES | DASHMATCH ] S*
    [ IDENT | STRING ] S* ]? ']'
  ;
pseudo
  : ':' [ IDENT | FUNCTION S* [IDENT S*]? ')' ]
  ;
declaration
  : property ':' S* expr prio?
  ;
prio
  : IMPORTANT_SYM S*
  ;
expr
  : term [ operator? term ]*
  ;
term
  : [ NUMBER S* | PERCENTAGE S* | LENGTH S* | EMS S* | EXS S* | ANGLE S* |
      TIME S* | FREQ S* ]
  | STRING S* | IDENT S* | URI S* | hexcolor | function
  ;
function
  : FUNCTION S* expr ')' S*
  ;
/*
 * There is a constraint on the color that it must
 * have either 3 or 6 hex-digits (i.e., [0-9a-fA-F])
 * after the "#"; e.g., "#000" is OK, but "#abcd" is not.
 */
hexcolor
  : HASH S*
  ;

G.2 Lexical scanner

The following is the tokenizer, written in Flex (see [FLEX]) notation. The tokenizer is case-insensitive.

The "\377" represents the highest character number that current versions of Flex can deal with (decimal 255). It should be read as "\4177777" (decimal 1114111), which is the highest possible code point in Unicode/ISO-10646.

%option case-insensitive

h		[0-9a-f]
nonascii	[\240-\377]
unicode		\\{h}{1,6}(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?
escape		{unicode}|\\[^\r\n\f0-9a-f]
nmstart		[_a-z]|{nonascii}|{escape}
nmchar		[_a-z0-9-]|{nonascii}|{escape}
string1		\"([^\n\r\f\\"]|\\{nl}|{escape})*\"
string2		\'([^\n\r\f\\']|\\{nl}|{escape})*\'
badstring1      \"([^\n\r\f\\"]|\\{nl}|{escape})*\\?
badstring2      \'([^\n\r\f\\']|\\{nl}|{escape})*\\?
badcomment1     \/\*[^*]*\*+([^/*][^*]*\*+)*
badcomment2     \/\*[^*]*(\*+[^/*][^*]*)*
baduri1         {U}{R}{L}\({w}([!#$%&*-\[\]-~]|{nonascii}|{escape})*{w}
baduri2         {U}{R}{L}\({w}{string}{w}
baduri3         {U}{R}{L}\({w}{badstring}
comment		\/\*[^*]*\*+([^/*][^*]*\*+)*\/
ident		-?{nmstart}{nmchar}*
name		{nmchar}+
num		[-+]?[0-9]+|[-+]?[0-9]*"."[0-9]+
string		{string1}|{string2}
badstring       {badstring1}|{badstring2}
badcomment      {badcomment1}|{badcomment2}
baduri          {baduri1}|{baduri2}|{baduri3}
url		([!#$%&*-~]|{nonascii}|{escape})*
s		[ \t\r\n\f]+
w		{s}?
nl		\n|\r\n|\r|\f

A		a|\\0{0,4}(41|61)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?
C		c|\\0{0,4}(43|63)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?
D		d|\\0{0,4}(44|64)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?
E		e|\\0{0,4}(45|65)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?
G		g|\\0{0,4}(47|67)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\g
H		h|\\0{0,4}(48|68)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\h
I		i|\\0{0,4}(49|69)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\i
K		k|\\0{0,4}(4b|6b)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\k
L               l|\\0{0,4}(4c|6c)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\l
M		m|\\0{0,4}(4d|6d)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\m
N		n|\\0{0,4}(4e|6e)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\n
O		o|\\0{0,4}(4f|6f)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\o
P		p|\\0{0,4}(50|70)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\p
R		r|\\0{0,4}(52|72)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\r
S		s|\\0{0,4}(53|73)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\s
T		t|\\0{0,4}(54|74)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\t
U               u|\\0{0,4}(55|75)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\u
X		x|\\0{0,4}(58|78)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\x
Z		z|\\0{0,4}(5a|7a)(\r\n|[ \t\r\n\f])?|\\z

%%

{s}			{return S;}

\/\*[^*]*\*+([^/*][^*]*\*+)*\/		/* ignore comments */
{badcomment}                         /* unclosed comment at EOF */

"<!--"		{return CDO;}
"-->"			{return CDC;}
"~="			{return INCLUDES;}
"|="			{return DASHMATCH;}

{string}		{return STRING;}
{badstring}             {return BAD_STRING;}

{ident}			{return IDENT;}

"#"{name}		{return HASH;}

@{I}{M}{P}{O}{R}{T}	{return IMPORT_SYM;}
@{P}{A}{G}{E}		{return PAGE_SYM;}
@{M}{E}{D}{I}{A}	{return MEDIA_SYM;}
"@charset "		{return CHARSET_SYM;}

"!"({w}|{comment})*{I}{M}{P}{O}{R}{T}{A}{N}{T}	{return IMPORTANT_SYM;}

{num}{E}{M}		{return EMS;}
{num}{E}{X}		{return EXS;}
{num}{P}{X}		{return LENGTH;}
{num}{C}{M}		{return LENGTH;}
{num}{M}{M}		{return LENGTH;}
{num}{I}{N}		{return LENGTH;}
{num}{P}{T}		{return LENGTH;}
{num}{P}{C}		{return LENGTH;}
{num}{D}{E}{G}		{return ANGLE;}
{num}{R}{A}{D}		{return ANGLE;}
{num}{G}{R}{A}{D}	{return ANGLE;}
{num}{M}{S}		{return TIME;}
{num}{S}		{return TIME;}
{num}{H}{Z}		{return FREQ;}
{num}{K}{H}{Z}		{return FREQ;}
{num}{ident}		{return DIMENSION;}

{num}%			{return PERCENTAGE;}
{num}			{return NUMBER;}

{U}{R}{L}"("{w}{string}{w}")" {return URI;}
{U}{R}{L}"("{w}{url}{w}")"    {return URI;}
{baduri}                {return BAD_URI;}

{ident}"("		{return FUNCTION;}

.			{return *yytext;}

G.3 Comparison of tokenization in CSS 2 and CSS1

There are some differences in the syntax specified in the CSS1 recommendation ([CSS1]), and the one above. Most of these are due to new tokens in CSS2 that did not exist in CSS1. Others are because the grammar has been rewritten to be more readable. However, there are some incompatible changes, that were felt to be errors in the CSS1 syntax. They are explained below.

G.4 Implementation note

The lexical scanner for the CSS core syntax in section 4.1.1 can be implemented as a scanner without back-up. In Lex notation, that requires the addition of the following patterns (which do not change the returned tokens, only the efficiency of the scanner):

{ident}/\\          return IDENT;
#{name}/\\          return HASH;
@{ident}/\\         return ATKEYWORD;
#/\\                return DELIM;
@/\\                return DELIM;
@/-                 return DELIM;
@/-\\               return DELIM;
-/\\                return DELIM;
-/-                 return DELIM;
\</!                return DELIM;
\</!-               return DELIM;
{num}{ident}/\\     return DIMENSION;
{num}/\\            return NUMBER;
{num}/-             return NUMBER;
{num}/-\\           return NUMBER;
[0-9]+/\.           return NUMBER;
u/\+                return IDENT;
u\+[0-9a-f?]{1,6}/- return UNICODE_RANGE;